Newey Neighborhoods, or How I Reinvented the Dewey Decimal Classification System to Meet the Needs of My Elementary Library

NOTE: This article is reprinted with permission from the author. The original article appeared on the author’s The “In” Librarian blog.

“Dewey was so 1800’s.”

No, this is not a comment overheard at a librarians’ forum dedicated to the implementation of the bookstore model in libraries. These are the words of a 4th grader upon completion of our Dewey Decimal study unit.

In November of 2012, I began my annual exploration of the breadth and depth of topics housed in the (primarily) nonfiction section of the library we all know as the Dewey Decimal section. In fact, “Melvil” himself guest lectured to introduce his classification system to the students.

Melvil Dewey, Guest Lecturer
Melvil Dewey, Guest Lecturer

Early on, there were rumblings about some of Dewey’s designations and decisions. “Hey, we should make up our own system called the Newey Decimal System,” quipped one student.

Now here’s where the lesson could have gone in two directions. “Oh, what a cute idea,” I could have thought, diminishing the creativity and critical thinking of said student and sticking with the almighty planbook. Or, I could have been blown away by the thought of a NEW Dewey, one created by the kids themselves. The fastidious Dewey-obsessed librarian would have opted for the former. (I used to be that librarian). But the Librarian 2.0 said to herself, let’s get messy and give this a try.

And so, the day arrived after we had journeyed through all ten categories to take that giant leap forward. I started with a class assessment. To create something new, we needed to understand the old first. So, I challenged the students to recall the ten Dewey classes, which we recorded on the left hand side of the whiteboard. Surprisingly this was much easier for them than I had thought it would be. Future librarians all? Then we started brainstorming how we could make the classification system more child-friendly.

The ideas began to flow. Every single child contributed. Ideas coincided, collided and overlapped.

“There should be a separate category just for nature. Animals and plants together. Pets, gardening, wild animals and trees.”

“Geography and languages and cultures and cookbooks should go together.”

“You know how the ghost books are in one section (100’s) and the alien and mysterious creatures are in another (000’s)? They should be together.”

“There should be a ‘How-To’ section. It could have the drawing books, origami books, how to put on your own play…” “Maybe we should call it the ‘Boredom Busters’ section.”

“We need to have more than just ten sections.”

Newey brainstorm
Newey brainstorm

And then this one, which really surprised me–a suggestion to put the biographies, history and the historical fiction together, by topic. “They’re all about history” was the (obvious) explanation. Interestingly enough, this idea is not new and has been adapted (loosely) in at least one school library.

The Newey concept remained theoretical–a great culminating lesson, a summative assessment designed by the students themselves. But, the following year I thought. Why not get messy? Why not empower these children to ring out the old and ring in the Newey? And so, the Newey Neighborhood was born. Twenty-odd sections, a new alpha-numeric classification system, a boon to shelvers and searchers alike. It took braun-power and brain-power and months of chaos, but it was worth it.

 

Nancy Kellner is the librarian at the Peaslee School in Northborough

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Language Laced in Bias: Classifying Knowledge (more) Equally with a Dewey-Hybrid Model

DeweyHybrid

I firmly believe that any worthwhile project should begin with a decent dose of naïve optimism.

It all started on a quiet April afternoon in the Dartmouth High School Library. I had just finished reading an article about a school library that had converted their nonfiction collection to a Dewey-Free model. What an awesome idea! I thought. And besides, how difficult could it possibly be? (Very difficult, I would later learn. At one point that summer when someone asked how the project was progressing, I actually said—almost crying—“I never want to see another book again!” …But don’t let that scare you.) While our classification project of creating a Dewey-Hybrid model took us eight months and 13,000 books from initial idea to full implementation, it has been a groundbreaking change that has positively impacted student engagement, learning, browsing, and research.

Powerful Words

“Going Dewey-Free” is currently a hot topic in the library world. Some librarians like to say, “Why fix what’s not broken?” but I would argue that the Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) has been broken since its creation—we just didn’t know it at the time. No amount of detailed signage will fix the fact that the DDC reflects one man’s white, Christian, American, nineteenth-century worldview. The DDC marginalizes minority discourses into classifications labeled “other”: 290 Other and comparative religions, 490 Other languages, and 990 General history of other areas. This distinguishes those that have been named (460 Spanish and Portuguese Languages) as normative and socially acceptable. How do our students feel who practice “other religions” or whose families are from “other areas”? And how do students from “named” backgrounds learn to view people from “other” backgrounds? Language is a form of power. When we classify books, we’re really classifying knowledge. And when we arrange knowledge in a hierarchy, we privilege certain lived experiences over others. People cannot be equal until all forms of knowledge are equal.

Dismal Decimals

The DDC was created with an ever-expanding decimal structure, an innovative feature for its time. This structure enables newly created categories to be incorporated into the existing framework. Over the years, though, categories have become fragmented to the point where computers are separate from technology, and sewing and crocheting are split across classes. In a genre-based system, spontaneous browsing has become a challenge.

This is the point where I find myself questioning the true purpose of libraries. When Dewey created the DDC, libraries contained closed stacks, only accessible by librarians (Gibson 48). As a profession, we have worked so hard over the years to encourage our students to take responsibility for their learning and to teach them the tools and components of research. Until we change the classification system, librarians will always serve as the intermediary. The key question is: should students have to be taught how to use a library? If a librarian’s primary responsibility is to serve as every student’s first point of contact in locating a book, we are losing time that could be spent on more creative, innovative, and collaborative work.

Unconvinced Librarians

Over the past two years, I have been contacted by many librarians about the concept of a Dewey-Hybrid model, from schools as near as my own district, to schools as far as the United Kingdom. While many librarians are convinced of the value of converting their systems, they struggle with the time and planning required to complete the project. There are other librarians, though, who are not convinced of the value of a Dewey-Free or Dewey-Hybrid model. They sometimes say things like, “Why overhaul the system when it just needs clarification?” (Hopefully that question has already been addressed.) Librarians also mention a concern with switching to a model that has not been officially established and accepted as a universal system. As a result, the ability to copy-catalogue becomes limited, and cataloging new items takes additional time. However, librarians may find themselves with additional time if they are no longer retrieving books for students. (Disclaimer: By no means am I advocating for a library experience where librarians no longer help students find materials. There is a stark difference, however, between those students who simply need to locate the biographies on Nelson Mandela or the books about Shakespeare, vs. those students who need help formulating a research question or finding books to spark some topic selection ideas.)

Systems, Frameworks, Models, Oh My!

Another objection that some librarians raise when considering a system conversion is the importance of students knowing how to use the public library. They worry that if the DDC isn’t taught in schools, students will grow up not knowing how to use other libraries. My answer starts like this: If students go to college, they will likely encounter Library of Congress. When they go to a bookstore, they browse by genre and author. On Amazon.com and other online booksellers, they search by keyword. All of these are just systems, but they’re different systems. We should keep in mind that Dewey-Free and Dewey-Hybrid models are also systems, not the absence of a system.

Furthermore, most public libraries still use the DDC, but how many adults voluntarily visit a public library if they don’t like reading, research, or discovering new things? Fostering a love of learning in children is a crucial step in creating adults who choose to visit the public library. And children who find (school) libraries frustrating, confusing, and intimidating will be at risk for not developing that passion for reading. If library patrons (of all ages) sense that libraries were designed for librarians, they will feel more like intruders in someone else’s space with less ownership of their right to a library’s collection of knowledge.

It has now been two years since that April afternoon when I stood in front of the nonfiction stacks and frowned for a while…and then envisioned the possibility of a different classification structure. It has been a process and a journey full of research, ideas, mistakes, and successes. While I do not claim that the Dartmouth High School library has created the perfect model, I am proud to say that it now features a system in which knowledge is more equal and students are more autonomous in their learning.

Works Cited

Gibson, Marjorie. “Innovative 21st Century Classification Schemes for Elementary School Libraries.” Feliciter 57.2 (2011): 48-49, 61. Print.

In 2013, Halley Zanconato and Pamela King, the Library Assistant, converted the nonfiction collection of the Dartmouth High School to a Dewey-Hybrid model. Eight months, 13,000 books, and countless cups of coffee later, the library features a more intuitive, less biased collection that is structured to directly support the school’s curriculum. Halley will graduate next year with a Ph.D. in Educational Leadership from UMass Dartmouth.

Halley Zanconato is the Library Media Specialist at Dartmouth High School.

From Words to Pictures: Collaboration, Creativity, & Curiosity: An Interview with Shelley Rotner

From composting to skin color, from seasons to adoption, from bees to A.D.D., Shelley Rotner has created more than thirty unique photographic journeys for children.  With a career spanning over twenty years, her first book, Changes, was published in 1991, she currently has one title due out in fall 2014, and another expected in spring 2015.

changes

Although Northampton is her home base, Shelley has traveled the world as a photographer for the United Nations and continues to work as a photojournalist.  Even with so many children’s titles with her byline, Shelley considers herself first to be a photographer. She intentionally seeks out images that represent the diversity of the world we live in and at times she says she has had to put her foot down with publishers to maintain her commitment to a multbodyactionsicultural portrait.

Before entering the world of children’s publishing, Shelley trained at Bank Street School of Education in New York City, earning dual degrees in early childhood and museum education.  She worked briefly both in Manhattan and in Milton, MA as a kindergarten teacher. When her daughter asked for books she couldn’t find in libraries or bookstores, she and Shelley began making their own books together.

beesNot surprisingly, Shelley’s natural creativity and curiosity lead her onto each new project.  She stands on her head every day in order to get her creative juices flowing (perhaps something we should all try!) and although she describes five-year-olds as her sweet spot and the target audience for most of her books, she herself attended kindergarten for only one week until she was moved up to first grade.shades

Shelley prides herself on saying more with less. Her photos speak for her. Her text is usually minimal and poetic, allowing readers to make their own connections. Through the combination of words and pictures, Shelley Rotner’s books accomplish that rare connection with the reader that few nonfiction texts do.  Collaboration is key to her success, she says; she has collaborated on most of her titles.

However, children’s books are not her sole interest. Currently she is creating breathtaking artworks by painting in oils on her black and white photographs. Check out her website (www.shelleyrotner.com) to see these gorgeous images as well as to learn more about this prolific children’s book creator.  Shelley is available for school visits and loves interacting with children, especially the young ones.

Suzanne Mathews is the elementary school librarian at the Trotter School in Boston